Spider Bioresources : Reserve Forests, Dooars & Darjeeling, West Bengal

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TOXICOLOGY
Agelenidae

Taxa
Important proteins isolated from the toxin
Importance
Agelena orientalis

Agelenin
Agel 01-25

---
Agelenopsis aperta AG 489 TRP1 antagonist
AG 505 Aceylpolyamine toxin
µ-agatoxin 1-6 Na+ channel antagonist
w-Aga I-IVA Ca2+ channels antagonist
Hololena curta Curtatoxin I-III Na+ channel agonist
Holena sp. HF-7 Blocks receptors in the nerve cell membranes and prevent glutamate production
Tegenaria agrestis TaITX-1-3 Paralytic insecticidal toxin

Araneidae


Taxa
Important proteins isolated from the toxin
Importance
Araneus ventricosus Toxin 1 Serine protease inhibitor
Toxin 2
---
Caerostris extrusa Neurotoxic peptide caeron
---
Parawixia bistriata

Parawixin-I

Parawixin-I selectively affects a glial glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) by specifically increasing one particular step of the glutamate uptake cycle. Its specificity and selectivity makes Parawixin-I a perfect starting point to design small molecules for the treatment of pathological conditions caused by alterations of glutamate homeostasis.

Ctenidae

Taxa
Important proteins isolated from the toxin
Importance
Ancylometes sp. Neurotoxin ANC32C7
Neurotoxin ANC45C1
Venom protein ANC29C0
---
Ctenus ornatus Neurotoxin-OcFU-5,
OcM31-11, OcM10-6, OcM9-7, OcM14-5, OcM14-9, OcM20-3,
OcM33-7, OcF17-11, OcF22, OcF29-9, OcF32-8, OcF35-5,
OcF40-4, OcFU-18,
Venom peptide - F13-4,
M14-8, OcF9-5,
OctF25-6, OctF30-12
---
Cupiennius salei

CSTX-9
CSTX-13

CSTX-I
Insecticidal
Neurotoxin
Selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels in mammalian neurons
Cupiennin - 1a, 1b, 1d, 1a*, 1d* Pronounced insecticidal activity and membrane destroying mode of action on prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic cells
Lachesana tarabaevi Latarcin (1 to 7) Lytic effects on cells of diverse origin at micromolar concentrations.
Phoneutria nigriventer PhTx4 (6-1) Na+ channel antagonist
PhTx3-4 Inhibits glutamate uptake in synaptosomes
PhTx3-1 K+ channel antagonist
w-PTxIIA Block presynaptic Ca2+ channel

Lycosidae

Taxa
Important proteins isolated from the toxin
Importance
Geolycosa sp. w-Lsp-1A Act on voltage gated Ca2+ channels in vertebrates
w-Lsp-1A (1-5) Cav 2.1
Hogna carolinensis   (i)  Lycotoxin I
  (ii) Lycotoxin II
  • Promote efflux of Ca2+ from synaptosomes, to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes.
  • Dissipate voltage gradients across muscle membrane.
  • Antimicrobial assays showed that both lycotoxins potently inhibit the growth of bacteria (E. coli) and yeast (Candida glabrata) at micromolar concentrations.
Lycosa erythrognatha BPP-S Inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme
Peptide-S Act at bradykinin receptor based on bradykinin like activity

Nephilidae

 
Taxa

Important protein isolated from the toxin

Importance
1.
Nephila clavata JSTX-1
JSTX-2
JSTX-3
JSTX-4
Useful in stydying receptors for excitatory aminoacids in the mammalian central nervous system.

Proteins have been shown to be a specific blocker of the post synaptic glutamate receptors.
2.
Nephila madagascariensis NPTX-594
3.
Nephila pilipes

NSTX-1
NSTX-2
NSTX-3
NSTX-4
NSTX-5
NSTX-6

(hydroxyl-3-yl)acetyl moiety
NSTX-7
NSTX-8
NSTX-9
NSTX-10
NSTX-11
NSTX-12
(indole-3-yl) acetyl moiety

Oxyopidae

 
Taxa

Important protein isolated from the toxin

Importance
1.
Oxyopes takobius (1) Oxyopinins
  • Oxyopinin 1 (48 aa residues)
  • Oxyopinin 2a
  • Oxyopinin 2b
  • Oxyopinin 2c
  • Oxyopinin 2d
  • Peptides with antimicrobial, hemolytic & insecticidal activity
  • ability to block voltage sensitive calcium ion channels
(2) Oxytoxins
  • Oxy Tx1 (69 aa residues)
2.
Oxyopes lineatus

(1) Oxytoxins

  • Oxy Tx1 (69 aa residues)
  • Oxy Tx2 (55 aa residues)


Peucetia viridans Venom :

Preparation :
Milked venoms are harvested from the fangs using numerous precautions to protect them from contamination by regurgitate and hemolymph. Typically, spiders are lightly anesthetized with carbondioxide, the mouth is suctioned to remove regurgitate and mild electric stimulation is used to stimulate venom release.
       Venom glands are typically dissected from anesthetized animals, rinsed in physiological saline to remove adhering fluids and placed in excess RNA later.

Composition :
Venoms usually have about 10% protein. 5 microliters of venom will weigh approximately 1 mg after lyophilization and contain approximately 0.5 mg protein.

Typical uses :
  • mRNA extraction for PCR.
  • Sequencing and protein expression.

Salticidae

Taxa
Toxin Name
Importance
Phidippus appacheanus

Hadrurin

---


Sparassidae

Taxa
Important proteins isolated from the toxin
Importance
Heteropoda venatoria

1. Heteropodatoxin (HpTx)

a) HpTx1 or AU3/KJ5
b) HpTx2 or KJ6
c) HpTx3 or AU5C/KJ7

These 3 toxins are structurally similar peptides of 29-32 aa.
They show sequence similarity to Hanatoxins [isolated from the venom of chilean rose tarantula (Grammostala rosea)]

  • Inhibitor of voltage gated potassium channels of the KV4 family
  • Also blocks calcium channels.
Toxin AU2
Toxin KJ1
Toxin AU5A
Toxin AU5B
Non specific blocker of KV4 channels and weak blocker of calcium channels

Theraphosidae

Spider species
Toxin Name
Toxin Activity
Aphonopelma sp. Eurypelma spider toxin 1
Eurypelma spider toxin 2
---
Brachypelma albiceps Ba1 & Ba2 Toxins with insecticidal activity
Brachypelma smithi Bs1, venom protein 1,
venom protein 5
Toxins with insecticidal activity
Ceratogyrus marshalli

Ceratotoxin 1, 2, 3

Na+ channel antagonist
Chilobrachys jingzhao JZTx 1 Inhibits deactivation of cardiac sodium channels without affecting tetrodotoxin resistant sodium channels
JZTx III Inhibits activation of tetrotoxin insensitive voltage gated sodium channels without affecting VGSGs or Ca2+
Jingzhaotoxin-5 Inhibit both tetrodotoxin resistant and tetrodotoxin sensitive volgate gated Na+ channels and Kv4.2 channels
Jingzhaotoxin-7
---
Jingzhaotoxin-11 Inhibits voltage gated Na+ (especially Nav1.5) and potassium channels (especially Kv2.1, Kv4.2 & Kv4.1)
Jingzhaotoxin-12 Inhibits voltage-gated K+ channels of the subtypes Kv4.1
Coremiocnemis valida Covalitoxin-2 Toxins with insecticidal activity
Grammostola rosea Grammotoxin SIA Omega grammotoxin : inhibits P/Q and N type Ca2+ channels

GSMTX-2
GSMTx-4

Stretch-activated ion channel (SACs) antagonist
HaTx 1
(Hanatoxin 1)
HaTx 2
(Hantoxin 2)
Peptide : K+ channel (KV 2.1) antagonist
PaTx 1
(Phrixotoxin 1)
PaTx 2
PaTx 3
Selective block of KV 4.2 and KV 4.3 potassium channels
VSTx 1 K+ channel antagonist
Haplopelma hainanum Hainantoxin-V Inhibits TTX sensitive but not TTX resistant voltage gated Na+ channels
Hainantoxin-III & IV Inhibits neuronal TTX-sensitive voltage gated Na+ channels
Hainantoxin-I Inhibits voltage gated sodium channels
Heteroscodra maculata HmTx 1
HmTx 2
KV 2 potassium channels antagonist
Hysterocrates gigas SNX-482 Ca2+ channels antagonist
Lasiodora parahybana Lasiotoxin 1 & 2
---
Ornithoctonus huwena HwTx 4
(Huwentoxin H)
TTX sensitive sodium (Na+) channel antagonist
Paraphysa scrofa Phrixotoxin-1,2 Inhibits voltage gated K+ channels Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 by shifting channels activation to more deplorized potentials
Phrixotoxin-3 Inhibits several subtypes of voltage gated Na+ channels especially Nav1.2
Plesiophrictus guangxiensis Guangxitoxin Inhibitor of K(V) 2.1 / K(V) 2.2 channels
Psalmopoeus cambridgei PcFK 1
PcFK 2
(Psalmopeotoxin)
Antimalarial peptides
PeTx 1
(Psalmotoxin 1)
Inhibits proton activation of acid sensitive ion channels (ASIC 1a)
Vanillotoxins Capsacin receptor agonists
Stromatopelma calceata ScTx 1 High affinity inhibitor of KV 2.2 and also inhibits KV 2.1
Theraphosa leblondi TLTx 1
TITx 2
TITx 3
Inhibits KV 4.2 potassium channels
Thrixopelma pruriens ProTx-1
ProTx-II
First high-affinity ligands for tetrodotoxin-resistant peripheral nerve Na (V) channels, but also inhibit other Na (V) channels

Theridiidae

Taxa
Important proteins isolated from the toxin
Importance
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus

(A) Alpha latrotoxin (130 KDa)
    [3 receptor for alpha latrotoxin :
      i)   Neurexin
      ii)  Latrophilin
      iii) Protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma]

  • Binds to presynaptic nerve terminals and stimulates massive neurotransmitter release
  • Latrotoxin tetramer can form ion permeable pores in the membrane of target cells, causing influx of calcium ions and thus leading to massive neurotransmitter release
(B) Latrocrusta toxin Presynaptic toxin (crustaceans)
(C) Latroinsecto toxin Presynaptic toxin (insects)
Latrodectin ---
LMWP2 Act on presynaptic nerve terminal

Thomisidae

Taxa
Important proteins isolated from the toxin
Importance
Heriaeus melloteei

Hm-1
Hm-2

Inhibits voltage gated Na+ channels


Zodariidae

Taxa
Important proteins isolated from the toxin
Importance
Lachesana tarabaevi

Latarcin-1, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5, 6a, 6b, 6c, 7

Toxins with cytolytic, antibacterial and hemolytic activity
Cyto-insectotoxin1 Toxins with antibacterial, insecticidal and cytolytic activity





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